General Introduction

Pregnancy tracking involves the process of monitoring the miraculous changes experienced by expectant mothers in the medical sense. Pregnancy tracking encompasses the entire process from planning of conception until delivery.

Pregnancy is a 42-week journey. Completing this journey in a pleasant, healthy and peaceful way is the greatest desire of every expecting mother. To achieve this, various factors should be taken into account during pregnancy.

What is Pregnancy Tracking?

Pregnancy tracking refers to the medical, physical and biological monitoring of the condition of the mother and baby. It is necessary to inform the expectant mother about all the conditions related to pregnancy and to evaluate the risks that she may experience during this process.

Pregnancy tracking enables to predict the risks that may arise, allowing to carry out necessary interventions. Therefore, pregnancy tracking is very important.


Hysteroscopy is one of the most valuable diagnostic tools for gynecological diseases. Hysteroscopy refers to monitoring the uterus with a lighted tube. General anesthesia is not required in diagnostic hysteroscopy.

However, general anesthesia must be administered when hysteroscopy is applied for therapeutic purposes. Hysteroscopy is applied after the menstrual period.

Hysteroscopy can be useful for the following conditions:

Diagnosis and treatment of septum,



Uterine adhesions.

How Is Hysteroscopy Performed?

Hysteroscopy can be applied for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. When applied for therapeutic purposes, it is sufficient to administer a mild dose of general anesthetics. Hysteroscopy is generally a painless procedure.

A tubular hysteroscopic device is inserted into the uterus. The optical and camera system in the device enables to observe the inside of the uterus in detail. The fluid is introduced into the uterus so that the uterus is widened and can be monitored in more detail. Then, the necessary procedures are done.


Laparoscopy is a type of surgical procedure applied with a closed technique. Laparoscopy allows the surgeon to view the abdominal organs through a camera inserted from the belly button. Both diagnosis and treatment can be made during the procedure.

Especially 90 percent of gynecological diseases can be operated with laparoscopic methods. Laparoscopy is performed under general anesthesia. Recovery time is very short since it is performed with a closed technique.

The patient recovers in a few days. Laparoscopic methods enable to complete the entire operation process with 3-5 mm incisions from the belly button and lower abdomen.

When Are Laparoscopic Methods Performed?

Laparoscopy can be performed in approximately 90 percent of diseases seen in women.

Some examples are:

Ovarian cysts,

Ectopic pregnancy,


Infertility treatment,

Chocolate cyst,

Removal of the uterus,

Uterine prolapse,

Gynecological cancer types etc.

Genital Aesthetics

Genital aesthetics is one of the most popular aesthetic operations today. A beautiful appearance is an important factor that makes women feel safe, happy and attractive. In this regard, women’s dissatisfaction with their genital area and its appearance lead to decreased quality of sexual life.

It should be noted that there is no specific and standard perception of beauty regarding the genital area. However, if certain issues are disturbing the patient, quite simple surgical interventions can be performed to correct them.

Some genital aesthetic problems can also lead to functional health problems. For example, if the patient has larger inner lips than usual, it may lead to dissatisfaction regarding appearance while causing pain during sexual intercourse.

Correction of this problem with simple genital aesthetic interventions can enable women to have much more confidence in their sexual life and daily life.

What is Labiaplasty?

Labiaplasty refers to aesthetic procedures for large and small lips on the side of the genital area. Labium refers to the lips that make up the external genital structure. Correction of the inner and outer lips by aesthetic operations is performed with labioplasty.

Advanced age and difficult births may lead to these problems over time. Other than sexual intercourse, asymmetry, size or prolapse of the inner and outer lips can cause undesired appearance when wearing swimsuits or tights.


Urogynecology examines pelvic organ prolapses, difficulties in defecation, fistulas or congenital conditions of the vagina. So, urogynecology is the field where pathological conditions of pelvic floor disorders are diagnosed and treated.

Urogynecology encompasses the complaints of active bladder, pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence in women. Urinary incontinence is the most common health problem among elderly patients.

Urinary incontinence is usually observed in 50 percent of postmenopausal women. Other factors leading to urinary incontinence other than menopause:

Sagging of genital organs,

Advanced age,

Difficult birth stories,

Chronic and genetic diseases.

All these factors decrease the quality of life along with sexual life. Urinary incontinence is one of the health conditions that significantly reduce the quality of life, however, it is treated quite easily.

What is Urinary Incontinence?

Urinary incontinence refers to involuntary loss of urine. It is a very common health problem all over the world. Its severity varies from patient to patient.

Women with this problem may reflexively experience urinary incontinence in natural situations such as laughing, running, sports, coughing or sneezing.

What Are the Types of Urinary Incontinence?

Stress incontinence: It refers to leakage of urine at times of coughing, sneezing or exercise. This type of urinary incontinence exhibits mild severity.

Urge incontinence: This type refers to incontinence with the sudden urge to go to the bathroom when the bladder is either full or empty. However, urinary incontinence occurs involuntarily before the patient can make it to the bathroom. Compression-type incontinence may particularly occur when the patient consumes cold drinks, hears the sound of water or during sleep.

Mixed incontinence: Conditions of stress and compression type incontinence are considered as mixed incontinence.

Other types of incontinence are:

Functional incontinence,

Overflow incontinence,

Temporary incontinence,

Continuous incontinence,

Psychogenic incontinence,

Incontinence during sexual intercourse.

Gynecological Cancers

Gynecological cancers are among the most common health problems worldwide. The most common cancer among women is breast cancer, followed by gynecological cancers.

Gynecological cancers include:

Uterine cancer (uterus)

Cervical cancer (cervix)

Ovarian cancer

Tubal cancer (tuba uterina)

Vulvar cancer

Vaginal cancer

Cancer is a health problem the risk of which increases with poor living conditions such as smoking, air pollution, stress, and nutrition with ready meals. Many exposed chemical products cause cancer and tumor formation in the human organism.

What is Vulvar Cancer?

Vulvar cancer is a type of obstetric cancer that occurs after age 65. Genital itching, swelling or mass are commonly seen in patients.

Swelling, wound-like formations, warts may occur in the genital area of patients. A specimen must be obtained for diagnosis. Early diagnosis highly contributes to the chance of successful treatment.

What is Vaginal Cancer?

Vaginal cancers are cancers of the birth canal. They occur quite rarely. They are generally seen in the postmenopausal period. Painless bleeding and discharge of unknown cause are the most common symptoms.

What is Cervical Cancer?

Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among gynecological cancers. The chance of treatment is quite high since it can be detected during routine examinations. The diagnosis can be easily made within the scope of smear scans, vaccination or routine exams. It may occur in women of all ages.

What Is Uterine Cancer?

Uterine cancer is endometrial cancer. It is the most common type of gynecological cancer. It occurs frequently in the post-menopausal period. Absence of childbirth, obesity and late menopause are among the risk factors.

Diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure and polycystic ovary syndrome also increase the risk factors for uterine cancer.

What should be known about uterine cancer:

It bears high risk since there is no screening method for cervical cancer.

Approximately 90 percent of patients experience abnormal vaginal bleeding in the post-menopausal period.

A biopsy is necessary to determine the presence of cervical cancer.

What Are Ovarian Tumors?

Ovarian cysts are quite risky among the types of vaginal cancer. They are divided into two as benign and malignant. Simple cysts are common in the ovaries. Ovarian tumors are generally seen at childbearing ages.

85 percent of these tumors are benign. However, 30 percent of ovarian cysts seen in the post-menopausal period are malignant.

How Are Gynecological Cancers Treated?

It is important to make correct diagnosis for the treatment of gynecological cancers. Early diagnosis of cancer is the most important factor that increases the chances of successful treatment. Therefore, women of all ages should have a routine gynecology examination every six months.

Medical, surgical, chemotherapy or radiotherapy techniques can be used to treat gynecological cancers. Correct techniques should be applied for the treatment of the disease.